Of all the men and women of reproductive age in the United States, 30% of women and 35% of men smoke cigarettes. I often wonder how many of them have been informed that smoking has a negative effect on their fertility and that it increases risks for miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and early menopause. Survey results of 388 healthcare workers in a Connecticut Hospital supports the fact that public knowledge of reproductive health risks of smoking is possibly quite low. Just 22% knew that male and female fertility was negatively affected, and only 17% were aware that smoking increases the rate at which a woman’s eggs age. (1) These statistics beg the question: why aren’t these facts mentioned in high school health class or annual gynecological and basic physical appointments?
Cigarette, JUUL, or E-Cig – What Does Your Sperm Want You To Know?
Male smokers can experience decreased sperm quality: lower counts, motility, and an increased number of abnormally shaped sperm.
Smoking is associated with impotence/erectile disfunction.
Nicotine, and the more than 4,000 chemicals used in cigarettes, have been associated with damage to genetic material and studies suggest both smoke and smokeless tobacco impairs sperm function. The American Society of Reproductive Medicine has stated “semen parameters and results of sperm function tests are 22% poorer in smokers than in nonsmokers and effects are dose dependent.” (2)
Infertility rates for male/female smokers are double and may require nearly twice the amount of IVF attempts than that of nonsmokers. (1)
Women subject to secondhand smoke can experience longer conception time, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and preterm labor.
Children whose parents smoke are at greater risk for birth defects, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, asthma, heart disease, diabetes, infertility, and obesity.
Why Quit? Are These Negative Effects Reversible?
The rate of a successful pregnancy DOES increase if the smoking stops.
The rate of pregnancy complications decreases.
Health risks to your future child will decrease.
Is Marijuana A Healthier Choice?
No, not at all. Marijuana use by either men or women has been associated with similar fertility and reproductive risks as cigarette smoking. Prenatal exposure is also associated with brain and other birth defects.
Looking To Quit? Here Are Some Helpful Smoking Programs
Carolyn Gundell, M.S., leads RMACT’s Fertility Nutrition Program, a service available to all patients. Carolyn has a great passion for nutrition and its link to fertility, which she shares with her patients to empower them with food and lifestyle behaviors that optimize their health for conception, successful fertility treatment, and healthy pregnancy.